When a password is reset it is reset on one domain controller so the only thing determining how fast the synch is is the replication between your domain controllers. We cannot control how fast the DCs replicate but we can specify a certain DC to be used if you notice issues with a certain DC. This is the same for the client. As for bitlocker this has not been tested but the only files that are read are the secrets.bin file in the users profile directory. As long as this file can be read everything else is over the network and not affected by bitlocker.